Known as the Mongolian wild horse or Takhi, Przewalski’s horse is the last wild horse species alive. Native to Central Asia and the Gobi Desert, this animal has never been domesticated. It is rare and endangered; in fact, they were once extinct in the wild. The last Mongolian Przewalski’s horses were seen in 1966 but were reintroduced into their natural habitat several years after.
Every Przewalski horse presently living is descended from 9 of 13 horses captured in 1945. Two of these animals were hybrids—one sired from a wild horse stallion and domestic mare, the other from a wild stallion and a tarpan mare. These 13 horses were descended, in turn, from approximately 15 animals captured around 1900. A cooperative venture between the Zoological Society of London and Mongolian scientists resulted in the successful reintroduction of these horses from zoos into their natural habitat in Mongolia. Currently, there are around 300 Przewalski’s horses in the wild.
The native population declined in the 20th century due to a combination of factors. Copetition with livestock, hunting, capture of foals for zoological collections, military activities, and unusually harsh winters are considered to be the primary reasons for the Przewalski’s horse population decline.
This horse, when compared to domesticated horses, is short and stocky. Their typical height ranges between 12 and 14 hands—around 48-56 inches, and they can be around 7 feet in length. Their coat is generally dun with pangaré features and can vary from dark brown around the mane to a yellowish-white belly. While other horse species have 64 chromosomes, the Przewalski’s horse has 66.