The horse has evolved over the course of 45 to 55 million years—from small, multi-toed creatures into the large, single-toed animal we know and love. Humans began to domesticate horses around 4000 BC, and their domestication became widespread a thousand years later—around 3000 BC. The earliest archaeological evidence for this domestication comes from sites in Ukraine and Kazakhstan, but there is a sharp increase in horse domestication in Europe some two thousand years later.
The horse’s natural anatomy drove its domestication—their bodies enable them to make use of speed to escape predators, and they have a well-developed sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight response. Horses, historically and in modern times, have been used for leisure activities, sports, and for working purposes.
Moreover, their natural disposition and speed made horses an apt choice in warfare. In fact, they have been utilized in war for most of recorded history. The first archaeological evidence of this dates to between 4000 and 3000 BC, and their use in war was widespread by the end of the Bronze Age. They continue to be used in battle—most notably by the Janjaweed militias in the war in Darfur.
Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories. These groups are based primarily on general temperament: “hot bloods” are considered to be fast, enduring, and spirited, “cold bloods” are suitable for slow or heavy work, and “warmbloods” are most suited for riding purposes. Horse use, over thousands of years, has driven breed development.
Horses require a lot of maintenance and care. Routine hoof care and vaccinations should be administered, and dental examinations are essential. Regular groom is helpful for maintaining good skin health, and they require daily exercise. Caring for a horse is a massive undertaking, but it is well-worth it!